DAY AFTER day, city skylines are continuously growing higher like forests
after the rain. Whole cities were reduced to dust during the Korean War, but in
past decades this has been forgotten due to the spectacle of modern growth. Many
buildings and roads are being completed rapidly and exist as pleasant living
spaces for modern Korean society. It only took a half-century to give birth to
our cities, and still, these are getting bigger. Every morning, when passing a
new building, people ask themselves, "Where did that gorgeous building come
from?" What has made this miracle possible? Who are the main contributors to
these unbelievable results? Though not well recognized, they are the laborers in
construction sites, who set up every metal fitting and lay bricks with their own
hands. Sorrowfully, however, they are not getting the attention they
Construction workers are often referred
to by the slang term nogada. It stemmed from the Japanese word "day laborer,"
which also has a meaning of "violent and reckless person." This word was used
under Japanese rule in the early 1900s, but still has a negative connotation,
reflecting people's attitude toward the construction workers. From laying the
foundations and setting up the iron structures to doing small jobs like painting
and cleaning, every little work is the laborers' job. We cannot be indifferent
to them when hearing that an enormous number of people, officially about 1.8
million─the unofficial estimation is much larger─are engaged in construction
work. The problem is that the rate of irregular employees in the construction
industry is extremely higher than in any other job. It is estimated that about
70 percent of these workers are working under daily contracts.
"Because I am not regularly employed, I sometimes
feel the unfairness of this society," says Lee Sung-taek, who has worked for 15
years in construction sites. “It is true that our work is extremely dangerous
compared to other labors, but it doesn't mean that we should not be qualified to
benefit from social welfare and insurance." Most of the accident insurance
companies classify them as "not qualified" due to the high occurrence of
accidents. So, when hurt, or when dead at the worst, nothing can be done even
when small construction companies, with no insurance, try to handle the
situation without proper compensation. Surprisingly, this happens quite often.
"If someone resists this unreasonable happening, he will not be able to avoid
being neglected in this field of work. Nobody taught us, but everybody comes to
learn this rule by himself." Their lives simply depend on the construction
companies' diverse insurance systems, not on their individual choices for
In addition, laborers are locked under "hopelessness." Hope
comes even from the last one percent of possibility for a better situation, for
example, a promotion or a raise. However, unlike other occupations, construction
work is definitely far from the general hopes. Kim Hong-wan, a laborer,
expresses his dissatisfaction toward the work system: "It does not matter how
long you have worked or how good you are at construction. Even your accumulated
know-how of 30 years does not increase your daily pays or improve your
treatment. This is the main reason of our hopelessness." Truly, promotion or
retirement grants simply do not exist on their lists of expectations.
Still, they say they could stand all of these hardships only if
there were enough work places. Kim says with a sigh, "Twenty years ago, when
Korea was on the process of rapid industrialization, I used to work twenty-five
days a month. At that time, this work even felt much better than my previous
job. It is hard to believe myself, that recently, my working days per month are
only about seven days on average." There are complex reasons for the lack of
work places, but the nation-wide economic depression is the main cause. People
say that the construction industry is the field that is most influenced by the
economy and furthermore, changes in the economy are first felt in this industry.
It obviously represents our country's economic situation. Therefore, the
laborers' only hope is to see the domestic economy recovering, which will
activate the construction industry and make more work places in the long run.
Also, increasing foreign workers from China and Southeast Asia are one of their
concerns. "Foreign workers work for lower wages than Koreans, so several
companies prefer to hire them over us," says Lee. Some illegal companies even
abuse this poor situation. Conscienceless employers suggest laborers to work for
specific periods─a week or a month─on credit, which means that they require a
contract with no time or wage limit. "Seldom, but it has happened that the
illegal agents or employers just leave without having paid laborers who had
worked for months," says a manager in a public employment agency. "Laborers know
themselves that the contracts are unstable. However, they do not have any choice
but to accept these unfair proposals. When they do not, they have to wait for
another work chance, which might never come again."
of all these difficulties, they refuse to see people pity their miserable
situation. Because their energetic labors are not less precious than any other
job, the work itself is sometimes even a joy to them. They concentrate on their
given works deeply, earnestly and with a sense of duty. Maybe it would be an
excessive sympathy to regard them as a minority in our society who just need our
concern. What they call for is a proper job and the fair treatment they deserve
as laborers with equal rights like others. Our work is just to thank them and
remember them at every step of the construction phase.
These people say
their vigor comes from the hope that they will be able to work again tomorrow.
What they hope for is not wealth and fame, but a normal life with enough work
opportunities open to them. As they wish, people should realize their efforts
and appreciate the value of their existence, so that construction workers can
become more confident of their lives at last.